Tuesday, August 26, 2014

How to Stop Your Anxiety

6 Ways to Eliminate Anxiety

Anxiety that arise as a result of the response to stress or conflict conditions. Stimulation in the form of conflict, both from outside and within ourselves, it will cause the response of the nervous system that regulates the release of certain hormones. As a result of the release of these hormones, it appears stimulation in organs such as the stomach, heart, vessels and equipment areas of motion. Because the shape of such a response, the patient is usually not aware of it as a causal relationship.

Here are How to Reduce Anxiety

1. Adaptation to the environment
Naturally, if your anxiety when entering into a new environment. Immediately find a friend who can roughly help you to adapt to the environment. Ask your friends tell you about the situation in the office. This way you will be easier to get to know your new surroundings. Then you can determine the right way to behave.

2. Know your fears
Before becoming more anxiety, you better know exactly what often makes you be fearful. Do not let fear control you, because you could lose control. After knowing your fears, tell your friends and family are pretty close to you. The people closest to you would have to know your character well, so that they can provide the best input to do when you're anxiety.

3. Positive Thinking
What's on your mind will be realized from your actions. It is not easy to always think of a good thing. From now on, get used to not be prejudiced against whatever happens. Negative thoughts only makes you always in a state of anxiety that you are always afraid to move or make decisions. With positive thinking, you can quickly make a decision to become a quite rational and brave.

4. Pulling away for a moment
When you face a problem and you feel you can not solve it, pull yourself out of trouble. That is not to run away from problems. But by withdrawing, you can see your position and the problems you are facing. So you can get the point of the problem and can find a conclusion. Because as long as you remain silent in the matter, the more difficult you are looking for a way out. Like when you're looking for a way out in a maze, if you look from above, you can find a way out.

5. All is well
In the film Three Idiots, the players always say "All izz well" (read: All is well) when they feel anxious. Simply say in your heart over and over again, it is believed to bring a sense of calm. Do not forget to take a deep breath and exhale slowly-in while doing so. If it's calm, you can think clearly and can make good decisions. It's a must try.

6 Confidence
Anxiety arises usually because you are afraid of failing to do something. For that you should be familiar with the things related to your work, automatically your confidence will emerge. Convince yourself you can certainly do it well.

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Monday, July 14, 2014

Chronic Pain and Impaired Gas Exchange - NCP COPD


Nursing Diagnosis for COPD : Chronic Pain related to inflammation of the lining of the lungs.

Goal: Pain is reduced until it disappears.

Outcomes:
  • Clients say the pain is reduced / lost.
  • Relaxed facial expression.

Intervention:

1. Determine the characteristics of pain, miasalnya; sharp, consistent, stabbed, explore the changing character / intensity of pain / location.
Rational:
Chest pain is usually there within a few degrees of pneumonia, complications can arise such as pericarditis and endocarditis.

2. Monitor vital signs.
Rational:
Changes in heart rate or BP indicates that the patient is experiencing pain, especially when other reasons for changes in vital signs.

3. Provide comfortable action, for example; back massage, change of positions, calm music / conversation, relaxation / breathing exercises.
Rational:
Non-analgesic action is given with a gentle touch can eliminate the discomfort and magnify the effects of analgesic therapy.

4. Offer cleaning the mouth, with often.
Rational:
Mouth breathing and oxygen therapy can irritate and dry the mucous memberan, potential general discomfort.

5. Advise and assist the patient in the chest pressing techniques during coughing episodes.
Rational:
Tool for controlling chest discomfort while enhancing the effectiveness of cough effort.

6. Provide analgesic and antitussive as indicated.
Rational:
Drugs like this can be used to suppress non-productive cough / excessive mucosa proximal or decrease, increase comfort / general break. (Doenges, 1999. Thing 171).



Nursing Diagnosis for COPD : Impaired Gas Exchange related to bronchial constriction.

Goal: Maintain the oxygen level is adequate for the purposes of the body.

Outcomes:
  • Without oxygen therapy, SaO2 95% dank lien ti and experiencing shortness of breath.
  • Vital signs within normal limits.
  • There are no signs of cyanosis.

Intervention:

1. Assess frequency, depth of breathing, note the use of accessory muscles, mouth breathing, inability to speak / talk.
Rationale: Useful in the evaluation of the degree of respiratory distress and chronic disease processes.

2. Assess regularly the skin and mucous membrane color.
Rational:
Possible peripheral cyanosis (seen in the nail) or central (seen around the lips or ears). Grayish, and the diagnosis of central indicate the severity of hypoxemia.

3. Elevate head of bed, help patients make choosing easier position for breathing. Push slowly breathing in or breathing lips in accordance with the needs / individual tolerance.
Rational:
Oxygen delivery can be improved with a high seating position and breathing exercises to lower airway collapse, dyspnea and breath work.

4. Encourage issued sputum, suction if indicated.
Rational:
Thick and viscous secretions lot; The main source of disruption of gas exchange in the small airway, and suction needed when coughing ineffective.

5. Auscultation of breath sounds, note areas of decreased air flow and / or additional noise.
Rational:
Breath sounds may be dim due to a decrease in airflow or consolidation area. Indicate bronchospasm wheeze / ter-discharge immunity. Spread wet crackles showed fluid in the interstitial / cardiac decompensation.

6. Monitor vital signs and cardiac rhythm.
Rational:
Tachycardia, disiretmia and changes in blood pressure may indicate the effect of systemic hypoxemia on cardiac function.

7. Provide supplemental oxygen in accordance with the indications of the results of the GDA and patient tolerance.
Rational:
Can fix / prevent worsening hypoxia. Note; chronic emphysema, regulate breathing patients ditentikan by CO2 levels and may be issued with excessive increase in PaO 2. (Doenges, 1999. Thing 158).

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Sunday, May 4, 2014

5 Nursing Diagnosis for Hepatocellular Carcinoma / Liver Cancer


Nursing Care Plan for Hepatocellular Carcinoma


Definition of Hepatocellular carcinoma

Hepatocellular carcinoma is a malignant primary liver tumors and the most common of the primary malignant liver tumors such as malignant lymphoma, fibrosarcoma, and hemangioendothelioma.

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) or primary liver cancer is one of the types of cancer that originates in the liver cells (Misnadiarly, 2007). Hepatocellular Carcinoma ordinary and often occurs in patients with cirrhosis of the liver which is a complication of chronic viral hepatitis.


Etiology of Hepatocellular carcinoma

The cause of liver cancer in general is a viral infection of hepatitis B and C, aflatoxin B1 contamination, liver cirrhosis, parasitic infections, alcohol and heredity. (Fong, 2002).

Infection with hepatitis B and C virus is a major cause of liver cancer in the world, especially patients with antigenemia and also have chronic hepatitis disease. With male patients aged over 50 years who suffer from hepatitis B and C have the possibility of developing liver cancer. (Tsukuma et al., 1993; Mor et al., 1998).

Factors that can damage the liver and cause liver cancer:
  • Sleeping too late and waking up too late.
  • Do not defecate in the morning.
  • A diet that is too excessive.
  • Do not eat breakfast.
  • Too much consumption of drugs.
  • Consuming too much preservatives, additives, food coloring, and artificial sweetener.
  • Unhealthy cooking oil. As much as possible reduce cooking oil use when frying food. Do not consume fried foods when you are tired, except if the body is fit.
  • Consuming raw food (very mature) also adds to the burden of liver. Fried vegetables should be eaten right away, not stored.
  • Alcohol.
  • Descent.
  • Hepatis B, C.


Pathophysiology of Hepatocellular carcinoma

Liver cancer occurs due to damage to the liver parenchyma cells that are directly caused by the usual primary liver disease or indirectly by the obstruction of bile flow or hepatic circulation disorder that causes liver dysfunction. Liver parenchymal cells will react to the elements of the most toxic through glycogen replacement with fatty infiltration of lipids that occurs with or without necrosis or cell death. This situation is often accompanied by inflammatory cell infiltration and growth of fibrotic tissue. Cell regeneration can occur if the disease course is not too toxic to liver cells. Resulting in downsizing and subsequent fibrosis would be liver cancer.


Clinical Manifestations of Hepatocellular carcinoma

Clinical manifestations of hepatocellular carcinoma in the form of signs and symptoms include: skin becomes yellow, Fever, Chills, Feeling unusually tired, Nausea, abdominal pain, loss of appetite, body weight dropped drastically, pain in the back and shoulders, Urine dark, bleeding occurred in parts of the body.


Nursing Care Plan

Assessment

Identity
  • Age: Usually attacking adults and the elderly.
  • Gender: Liver cancer is common in men than in women.
  • Occupation: Can be found in people with excessive activity.

Medical history
  • The main complaints: Complaints of patients at the time studied.
  • Past medical history: Patient had once suffered from any disease and how treatment.
  • History of present illness.

Data Focus

Basic data depends on the cause and severity of the liver damage or disruption by Doengoes, 1999 are:
  • Activities: Clients will experience fatigue, weakness, malaise.
  • Circulation: Bradycardia due to heavy hyperbilirubin, jaundice in the sclera, skin and mucous membranes.
  • Elimination: Color dark urine (like tea), diarrhea stool color clay.
  • Food and fluids: Anorexia, weight loss, nausea and vomiting, increased edema, ascites.
  • Neurosensori: Be sensitive to stimuli, tend to sleep, asterixis.
  • Pain / Comfort: abdominal cramping, abdominal tenderness in the right upper quadrant, myalgia, headache, itching.
  • Security: Urticaria, fever, erythema, splenomegaly, enlargement of the cervical nodes posteior.
  • Sexuality: Homosexual behavior is active or bisexual women may increase the risk factor.


Physical examination

According Doengoes 1999 physical examination in patients with liver cancer are:
  • Vital signs: increased blood pressure, pulse brakikardial, increased temperature, increased respiration.
  • Eyes: sclera jaundice.
  • Mouth: Dry mucosa, lips pale.
  • Abdomen: There is tenderness in the right upper quadrant, liver enlargement, ascites, palpable irregular surfaces.
  • Skin: Itching (pruritus).
  • Extremities: Experiencing weakness, increased edema.


Nursing Diagnosis for Hepatocellular Carcinoma

1. Ineffective breathing pattern related to a decrease in lung expansion (emphasis ascites and diaphragm).

2. Pain (acute / chronic) related to a buildup of fluid in the abdominal cavity (ascites).

3. Imbalanced Nutrition: less than body requirements related to inadequate nutritional intake, abdominal distention, feeling sick to the stomach and anorexia

4. Anxiety related to enlargement of the abdomen.

5. Activity intolerance related to fatigue, lethargy and malaise (not feeling well).

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Wednesday, January 22, 2014

2 Nursing Diagnosis and Interventions for Lung Tumors


Nursing Care plan for Lung Tumors

In general, lung tumors are divided into benign tumors (5%), among others; adenoma, hamartoma and malignant tumors (90%) were bronchogenic carcinoma.

According Alsagaff Hood, et al. 1993, bronchogenic carcinoma is a malignant primary lung tumors, which originate from the respiratory tract. Meanwhile, according to Susan Wilson and June Thompson, 1990, lung cancer is an uncontrolled growth of anaplastic cells in the lung.

Such as cancer in general, a definite etiology of lung cancer is still unknown, but it is thought that long-term inhalation of carcinogenic substances is a major factor, without ruling out the possibility of a predisposing role of family relationships or tribe or race, and immunological status.
  • Effect of cigarette.
  • Effect of exposure to industry.
  • The influence of the presence of other diseases or predisposition to other diseases due.
  • The influence of genetic and immunological status.
At the time still early, so no obvious symptoms particularly like; old cough and respiratory infections. Therefore, in patients with cough than 2 weeks to 1 month chest radiographs should be made with other symptoms of dyspnea, hemoptoe, febrile, weight loss and anemia. In a state that has continued to exist extrapulmonary symptoms such as bone pain, stagnation (syndroma superior vena cava).

The average length of life of patients with lung cancer from initial diagnosis 2-5 years. The reason is that when lung cancer is diagnosed, it is lymphatics and metastasis to other areas. In elderly patients and patients with other illnesses, longer life may be shorter.


Nursing Diagnosis and Interventions for Lung Tumors

1. Ineffective airway clearance related to bronchial obstruction secondary to tumor invasion.

Goal: patent airway clearance

Outcomes: cough disappeared, breathing clean, clean chest X-ray.

Interventions:
  • Auscultation of the lungs would crackles, rales or wheezing.
  • Monotr ABGs.
  • Monitor the results of sputum cytology.
  • Give the position of the head of the bed elevated optimal.
  • Set oxygenation.
  • Assist patients with ambulation or change position.
  • Encourage intake of 1.5 to 2 L / day unless contraindicated.
  • Help the patient with a cough.

2. Chronic pain related to nerve compression by lung tumors.

Goal: demonstrate free from pain.

Outcomes: relaxed facial expression, optimal lung development, expressed the pain disappeared.

Interventions:
  • Give analgesics and evaluation of its effectiveness.
  • To minimize pleural chest pain: is recommended to hold the chest with both hands or with a pillow when coughing, encourage patients to stop smoking, humidifiers and provide appropriate orders and antitussive drug.
  • To minimize bone pain: flipping carefully and provide support, avoid limb pull, give a soft mattress, reposition every 2 hours.

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Tuesday, January 14, 2014

Colon Cancer - Head To Toe Physical Examination (example)


1. General state

Composmentis client awareness, Vital Sign: BP 110/70 mm Hg, pulse 70 beats / minute, the rhythm was regular strength, respiration 26 times / minute, regular rhythm, temperature of 36.50 C.


2. Physical Examination

Head: normal scalp, there was no hematoma, or gross lesions. Brittle hair while revoked, black and no gray hair, and clean.

Eyes: Eyes clients generally normal, symmetrical shape, looks anemic conjunctiva, sclera jaundice not, pupils can respond to light, normal lid, no edema. Normal eye lens, clear, vision right eye and the left normal. Looks black line on the bottom eyelid clients.

Nose: the nose is symmetrical, no septal deviation, polyps, epistaxis, impaired senses of smell, or secret.

Mouth: mouth normal, normal teeth, no holes, and no dentures. Dry lips, no stomatitis, and no cyanosis. Red gums, tongue looked dirty.

Ears: symmetrical ears, clean, and no hearing loss.

Neck: the neck is normal, no enlargement of the thyroid, no neck stiffness, no hematoma, no lesions.

Throat: normal, no tenderness, no hyperemia, and no enlargement of the tonsils.

Chest: normal chest shape.

Pulmo: Inspection: symmetrical chest expansion. Palpation: tactile fremitus equal right to the left. Percussion: right and left pulmonary resonant. Auscultation: vesicular on the right and left pulmonary

Heart: shows the limits of normal heart.

Abdomen: inspection: slightly convex shape. Palpation: tenderness in the lower abdomen. Auscultation: peristaltic per minute.

Genetalia: Male: normal, no bleeding.

Rectal: normal, no hemorrhoids, no prolapse, and no tumor.

Extremities:
above: Muscle strength right / left: 6/6, ROM right / left: active / active
bottom: muscle strength right / left: 6/6, ROM right / left: active / active

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Thursday, January 9, 2014

Risk for Infection - Nursing Care Plan for Appendicitis

Appendicitis is an inflammation of the appendix, the incident is more likely to occur in men than women affected by appendicitis.
Appendicitis is more often attack at the age of 10 to 30 years.

Appendicitis perforation is a major complication of the appendix, where the appendix has ruptured appendix so that the contents out into the perineal cavity can cause peritonitis or abscess.

There are 4 factors that influence the occurrence of appendices:
  1. The presence of lysis lumen.
  2. Continuous degrees of blockage.
  3. Continuous mucus secretion.
  4. Properties in elastic / no bending of the mucosa of the appendix.

Clinical manifestations
  1. Lower quadrant pain feels and is usually accompanied by mild fever, nausea, vomiting and loss of appetite.
  2. Local tenderness at McBurney's point pressure when it's done.
  3. Tenderness off.
  4. There constipation or diarrhea.
  5. Lumbar pain, when the circular appendix behind the cecum.
  6. Painful defecation, when the appendix is located near the rectum.
  7. Urinary pain, if the tip of the appendix is near the bladder or ureter.
  8. Rectal examination was positive if the tip of the appendix at the end of the pelvis.
  9. Signs Rovsing by palpating the lower left quadrant is paradoxical that causes right upper quadrant pain.
  10. If the appendix had ruptured, pain becomes diffuse, with paralytic ileus caused by abdomen.
  11. In elderly patients for signs and symptoms vary widely appendix. The patient may not experience symptoms until rupture of the appendix.

Nursing Diagnosis for Appendicitis

Risk for infection r / t invasive measures, post-surgical incisions, decreased endurance primary

Goal:
  • Infection control and detected

Outcomes:
  • There are no signs of infection.
  • Vital signs within normal limits (Temperature: 36 - 37.5 c)

Nursing Interventions

Infection control :
  • Clean up the environment after use for other patients .
  • Limit visitors when necessary .
  • Instruct family to wash their hands when contact and thereafter .
  • Use anti- microbe soap for hand washing .
  • Perform hand washing before and after nursing actions .
  • Use clothing , masks and gloves as protective equipment ( Universal Precaution / UP ) .
  • Maintain aseptic environment during the installation of equipment .
  • Perform wound care , drainage and intravenous dressings , catheter care every day .
  • Increase intake of nutrients and fluids
  • Give antibiotics as ordered.

Protection of infection :
  • Monitor for signs and symptoms of systemic and local infections .
  • Monitor granulocytes and WBC count .
  • Monitor susceptibility to infection .
  • Maintain aseptic technique for each action .
  • Maintain isolation techniques when necessary .
  • Inspection of the skin and mucous mebran redness , heat , drainage .
  • Inspection of the condition of the wound , surgical incision .
  • Take culture if necessary .
  • Encourage and explain the importance of adequate rest .
  • Explain the importance of increased mobility and exercise , and teach .
  • Instruct patient to take antibiotics as ordered.
  • Teach family / client about the signs and symptoms of infection .
  • Report suspicion of infection .
  • Report related to the health care team if a positive culture .

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Tuesday, January 7, 2014

Detailed Information Causes and Symptoms of Gastric Infection

Often feel stomach pain? Be careful maybe it is an infection of the stomach, immediately check!

Gastric infection can occur as a result of friction in the stomach activity. Friction will be more severe if an empty stomach due to irregular eating that will ultimately lead to bleeding in the stomach. Other disorders of the stomach is gastritis or inflammation of the stomach. Can also be infected, causing inflammation of the appendix is called appendicitis.

Then, the stomach wall covered with mucus, which also contained the enzyme. If the defense is damaged mucus, digestive enzymes will eat small portions of the surface layer of the stomach, causing gastric infections. Infections cause perforation of the stomach wall of the stomach so that the stomach contents fall in the abdominal cavity. Most of this gastric infection caused by certain types of bacterial infections.

Gastric Infection Causes include:
  • The presence of emotional stress and excessive pressure on someone.
  • The presence of gastric acid and pepsin excessive.
  • Mucosa (mucous membrane) of the stomach is not resistant to gastric acid and pepsin excessive due to the decreasing ability of the gastric mucosa function.
  • Irregular meal times, often late eating, or overeating often
  • Too much spicy food, acid, alcohol, certain drugs with high doses.

While the symptoms are:
  • Nausea and often vomiting.
  • Abdominal pain, stinging (bloating and tightness) in the upper abdomen (solar plexus).
  • Drastically decreased appetite, pale face, body temperature rises, cold sweat.
  • Frequent belching especially when hungry.
  • It's hard to sleep because of pain disorders in the abdominal area.
  • Head feels dizzy. And the bleeding stomach ulcers can occur.

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Ineffective Airway Clearance and Imbalanced Nutrition related to Measles

Measles is a medical condition characterized by the appearance of symptoms that resemble the flu, pink eye and a set of red rash. Accompanying symptoms include spots on the move seen in the mouth, which are characteristic of measles. This condition is more common in younger than 2 years of age and is very contagious, but are relatively rare due to the spread of vaccination programs throughout the world. The prognosis is generally good with a decent safety figures, but the overall cause complications, ranging from somewhat mild (such as diarrhea) to very serious (such as acute encephalitis); generally a complication that occurs in adults is more severe, such as malnutrition and immunodeficiency. Because the disease is highly contagious, the patient should immediately consult with a medical expert.

1. Ineffective airway clearance r / t increased production of secretions.

Expected results :
  • Maintain the patient's airway with breath sounds clean or clear.
  • Demonstrate behaviors to improve airway clearance, eg effective cough and remove secretions.

Intervention :
1. Auscultation of breath
Rational : some degree of bronchial spasma occur with airway obstruction.

2. Assess or monitor respiratory frequency
Rationale : tachypnea usually exist in some degree and can be found at the reception or during stress or the presence of an acute infectious process.

3. Note the presence or degree of breathlessness dipsnea
Rationale : Respiratory dysfunction is variable depending on the stage of a chronic process other than the processes that lead to acute hospital care.

4. Maintain a minimum environmental pollution, for example ; dust, smoke, and feather pillows are associated with individual conditions.
Rational : the originator of respiratory allergic type reactions can be acute episodes.

5. Observation of the characteristic cough
Rational : cough may persist but are not effective, especially if the patient is elderly, acute pain, or weakness. Cough most effective at high seating position or head down after percussion.



2 . Imbalanced Nutrition , Less Than Body Requirements r / t failure or inability to digest digest food or absorption of necessary nutrients .

Expected results :
  • Showed an increase in body weight or body weight stable with normal laboratory values ​​.
  • Not had signs of malnutrition .
  • Demonstrate behaviors , lifestyle changes to improve and or maintain an appropriate body weight .

Intervention :
1 . Assess nutritional history , including the preferred food .
Rationale : identifying deficiencies , suspect the possibility of intervention .

2 . Observe and record the patient's food intake .
Rationale : overseeing the caloric intake or deficient quality of food consumption .

3 . Measure body weight per day
Rationale : evaluating the effectiveness of weight loss or nutritional interventions .

4 . Give a little bit of food and frequency often or eat between meals .
Rationale : eat little to reducing the vulnerability and increasing the intake also prevents gastric distension .

5 . Observe and record the incidence of nausea or vomiting , flatus , and other related symptoms .
Rationale : Gastrointestinal symptoms may indicate the effect of anemia ( hypoxia ) in the organ .

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Saturday, December 21, 2013

Respiratory Distress Syndrome Clinical Manifestations and Nursing Diagnosis


Respiratory Distress Syndrome often found in premature infants. The incidence is inversely related to gestational age and weight. This means that the younger the gestational age of the mother, the higher the incidence of Respiratory Distress Syndrome in the baby. In contrast, the older the gestational age, the lower the incidence of RDS. Percentage of events according to gestational age is 60-80% occurs in infants born with a gestational age less than 28 weeks, 15-30% of infants between 32-36 weeks and are rarely found in term infants (mature). Besides the increase in frequency was also found in infants born to women who suffer from uterine perfusion during pregnancy, for example, maternal diabetes, hypertension, hypotension, section and antepartum haemorrhage.

At first the baby will show rapid and shallow breaths in an effort to meet the oxygen demand is high, so that the blood gas analysis initially occurs because carbon dioxide respiratory alkalosis wasted. However, the baby will soon be exhausted because of difficulties developing alveoli and could not sustain his effort and respirasinya. If this is the case, then business slowed breathing and blood gases showed respiratory acidosis and respiratory failure commencement.

Caused by direct injury to the lung capillaries or alveoli. However, because the capillaries and alveoli are closely related to the extensive destruction of one item to another usually causes the destruction that occurs as a result of spending by the lytic enzymes the cells were dead, as well as the inflammatory reaction that occurs after injury and cell death. examples of conditions which affect the alveolar capillaries and are presented below:

Capillary destruction
There will be a movement of plasma and red blood cell spatial interstitium. This increases the distance that must be traveled to diffuse oxygen and carbon dioxide, thus declining to how fast gas exchange. The fluid that accumulates in the interstitial fluid moves into the alveoli, dilute surfactant and increase surface tension. This then leads to a decrease in ventilation and hypoxia. Causes of pulmonary capillary damage include septicemia, pancreatitis and uremia. Pneumonia, smoke inhalation, trauma and drowning can also damage capillaries.

Alveolar destruction
Causes damage to the alveolar include pneumonia, aspiration and inhalation of smoke. Oxygen toxicity arising after 24-36 hours of high oxygen therapy, can also cause damage to the alveolar membrane through the formation of oxygen free radicals.


Clinical Manifestations

  • Severe dyspnoea.
  • Decreased Lung Compliance.
  • And rapid shallow breathing at first that causes respiratory alkalosis due to (CO2) carbon dioxide lot of flying.
  • Increased respiratory rate.
  • Short breath and exhale when the sound of snoring.
  • Blackish skin due to hypoxia.
  • Retraction antargia breathing or chest every time.
  • Nasal flaring.
  • Many babies survived IRDs, where the symptoms subside and disappear usually within 3 days.
  • Tachypnea (more than 60x/mnt)


Nursing Diagnosis for Respiratory Distress Syndrome

1. Impaired gas exchange related to decreased volumes and lung compliance, pulmonary perfusion and alveolar ventilation.

2. Risk for Fluid Volume Deficit related to loss of fluids due to risk of aspiration and choking.

3. Imbalanced Nutrition: Less Than Body Requirements related to the inability to suck, decreased intestinal motility.

4. Ineffective family coping related to anxiety, guilt, and parting with the baby as a result of a crisis situation.

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Friday, December 13, 2013

Tips to Maintain and Care for the Display / Screen Android Phone

How to Care for The Android Screen

Currently Android is arguably very dominate the world mobile market. Android which comes from a variety of manufacturers both class three to class manufacturers such as Motorola, Sony, HTC, Samsung and many more. Almost certainly the mobile phone manufacturers have products / types in different kinds of classes. Class Entry Level (Low), Middle Level (Intermediate) and High Level (Upper Class).

One feature of the Android mobile phone is a touch screen. And the touch screen has an average screen size / display is quite large. Ranging from 3 inches to 5.5 inches (Galaxy Note 2). A fairly wide range. But the point is that the mobile-phone has a wide screen sizes. And given the size like that, then we as users of Android phones to be wise and careful quality care and we can screen guard so that we can continue to use them properly and without any significant problems.


Here are some tips and ways in order to display or displays can be adversely Android phone.

1. Use Smartphone Screen Protector
Screen Protector is intended in order to display or not display in direct contact with the outside world. So with this Screen Protector installation screen quality can be maintained. Please choose according to need.

2. Clean regularly Smartphones
Routine cleaning needs to be done in order to display / screen is maintained. One of the cleaners are cheap media is to use Eucalyptus Oil and Cotton or glass cleaning cloth. Do a sweep lightly until completely clean.

3. Put the Smartphone in a pocket in the right position
Right position here is based on the author's experience facing inward. So make sure when we put the Pocket Android phone , make sure the screen facing into or onto the body . With the goal in case of direct contacts intentional or unintentional then the first time is going to touch the back of our Android handtphone so not part of the screen.

It is 3 main tips to maintain and care for the Display / Screen Android phone , hopefully these tips useful .

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Tips to Keep Android Phone so Durable

If you have an android phone, you definitely want to make your phone is not easily damaged and hope that your android phone durable. Android is the mobile phone that is in great demand today because of the sophisticated technology that allows us to explore all of the android. But sometimes android also be a problem because sometimes android users may experience errors that are difficult to overcome.

For that, we should really keep our android phone to be durable and long lasting. To do so, here are some tips to keep our android phones to keep maintained and preserved.

1. Do not upgrade your android phone if you are not sure of the upgrade file to your android phone. If you want to upgrade your android phone, you should make sure that the file is safe to upgrade and existing reviews or comments.

2. If you are already in a state android root, then you should use a reliable antivirus for android. This is because viruses and trojans will be easier to get into the android system if android already in a state of the root.

3. If you want to download apps for your android phone, try to download it on google play. The application checks whether there is a good rating and if the application is received many good reviews from users. If good, then the application is the possibility of having a good quality.

4. Avoid android from falling or exposed to water. It will quickly ruin your android phone.

5. Avoid dangerous android modding. Modding harmful or modify android phone android experience can lead brick or even worse. (Who do not know what it is modding, modding is another term for Custom Rom. Term other is Android Mod which is short for Android Modification).

Well, that's a few simple tips that you can apply your fatherly android phone so durable and long lasting. If android durable, then you can accompany your android longer and make you more satisfied.

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Wednesday, December 4, 2013

Febrile Seizures Care Plan

Definition of Febrile Seizures

Febrile seizures are seizures that occur on a rise in body temperature (over 38 degrees Celsius) caused by the extra cranial process.

Febrile seizure is an event in infants or children who usually occurs between the ages of 3 months to 5 years was associated with a fever but never proven intracranial infection or a particular cause. (Consesnsus Statement On Febrile Siezures, 1980)


Originator or Risk Factors of Febrile Seizures

High fever caused by upper respiratory tract infection, pneumonia, gastroenteritis and urinary tract infections.
  • History of febrile seizures in parents or siblings.
  • Delayed development.
  • Problems in the newborn period.
  • Children in special care.
  • Children with low levels of Na.
  • Family history of epilepsy.


Pathophysiology of Febrile Seizures

In case of fever 1oC rise in temperature will lead to increase in basal metabolism 10-15% and 20% O2 requirements thus change the balance of the cell membranes of neurons and in a short time diffusion of sodium and potassium ions through the membrane before, with the result of loose cargo electricity. Remove the charge is so large that it can spread throughout the cell and surrounding cell membrane with the help of a material called "neurotransmitters" and there was a seizure.


Examination

1. Vital signs
  • Decreased consciousness.
  • Ictal period : Increased pulse, respiration, blood pressure and temperature.
  • Postictal : normal V5 sometimes depression.

2. Physical examination
  • Head: head shape disproportion, generalized seizures, tonic clonic and headaches.
  • Eyes: Pupil dilatation, movement of the eyeball and eyelid fast, light reflexes down and red conjunctiva.
  • Mouth: Excessive production of saliva, vomiting and Cyanosis oral mucosa.
  • Nose: The existence nostril breathing, Cyanosis.
  • Neck: In tetanus occurs stiff neck.
  • Chest:
    • Ictal period: Cyanosis, respiratory motion and decrease the pull intercostae.
    • Postictal: Apnoe or breath deep and slow.
  • Abdomen:
    • Ictal period: Increased spingter blader and muscle tone.
    • Postictal: muscle relaxation and hiperperistaltik.
  • Extremity
    • Ictal period: spasms in upper and lower extremities and cyanosis of the fingers and toes.
    • Postictal: muscle relaxation and pain and weakness in the muscles.


3. General examination
  • Electrolytes: Electrolyte imbalance predisposes to seizures.
  • Glucose: Hypoglycemia predispose to seizures.
  • BUN: Increased BUN is a potential seizure.
  • CBC: Aplastic Anemia can occur as side effects of drug administration.
  • LP: to detect the presence of abnormal pressure and signs of infection.
  • Skull X-ray: the existence of space and lesions persisted.
  • EEG: The focus of seizure activity.
  • CT scan: Local cerebral abscess detect tumor lesions with or without contrast.

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